More about Montessori


In the process of concentration, self-discipline, and perseverance with an active interest, the foundations of character are laid.” Maria Montessori


Maria Montessori did not “invent” the Montessori method by conceiving of a different manner in which we humans could educate our children and then by devising something “out of nowhere”, but she was a scientist and observed life with great patience and passion, she observed the child, and what she had observed, she used in her approach to human beings, i.e. children. She even did not want the method to be named after her; after all, it is just a description of natural life and development of humans, but for the sake of understanding how different this approach to human development is, she finally consented.

This entire method is thus founded on OBSERVATION. Maria Montessori observed children throughout her whole life and so did her collaborators around the world. Everything you find in Montessori schools around the world is based on objective observation of children without prejudice, catering to the needs of children in a way that supports them in their natural development towards happy adults who are aware of their needs and follow them as much as they are empathetic to the needs of others and society as a whole.


What did Maria Montessori observe? That children of certain ages have similar needs. Even we can see that the needs of children of two years of age differ from those of seven years of age. By detailed observation, she found that humans have similar needs at three-year intervals: 0-3 years, 3-6 years, 6-9 years, 9-12 years, 12-15 years, and 15-18 years.

As needs change, the approach, work methods and the prepared environment also need to change. This is what the method of Maria Montessori is based on – it is the child who is in the center, not the adult who, according to their perception of the world and their own needs, devises how children should be guided and educated.

The Perlička Montessori Primary School thus have MIX-AGED CLASSES from 3 to 6 years. The children learn one from another; the younger ones get inspired by the older ones, the older ones gain self-confidence by helping the younger children, explaining and showing them what they can do. It is a natural environment full of tolerance, helping, communication, cooperation, responsibility, care and empathy, as it is natural to live with people of different ages outside the classroom walls.


Maria Montessori observed that children up to 6 years have two gifts that fade away around the age of six. Older children do not have them any longer, let alone adults. They have different characteristics, which go hand in hand with different approach and methods.

These gifts are the foundation of the principles, methods, approach and prepared environment for children under the age of 6. Everything that goes on in a Montessori Primary is a reflection of these two gifts.

The first gist if the ABSORBENT MIND. A little human absorb everything in the surroundings – the culture, traditions, customs, atmosphere, movement, relationships, language… effortlessly, just by being, easily and smoothly. Unlike us adults and the older children who already have to engage conscious will and effort. What an amazing, almost magical gift! You witness it every day when your baby learns to talk just by being surrounded by talking people. Nature has granted us this to survive, unlike animals, wherever in the world we are born. What we absorb by the age of 6 stays with us for life! Let us take advantage of this every day in the Primary School!

The second gift are the SENSITIVE PERIODS. These are periods in which the child is attracted with an immense force to certain things and wants to do them. If they are allowed to do so, the children develop without frustration. Maria Montessori observed sensitive periods for language, for coordinated movement, order, development of senses and social behavior. All of these are very much part of the day in the Primary.


The teacher is the guide of the child on the path of their development. The teacher follows the child.

The teacher has three tasks:

1. TO OBSERVE, TO OBSERVE, TO OBSERVE THE CHILDREN all the time every day with patience, passion and love and without bias, to record the data gained by observation every day, to evaluate them objectively and then to respond to each child individually.

2. TO CONNECT THE CHILDREN WITH THE ENVIRONMENT – Based upon observation and a deep knowledge of the child, to show to the children how to work with the materials in the classroom. It is important to understand that a mere glance at the material is not sufficient, that each material has multiple options and sequences for exploration and discovery.

3. TO PREPARE THE ENVIRONMENT – That is why it is call the “prepared environment”. It is tailored to the age and needs of the children, it is beautiful, ordered, attractive. It even calls to us, adults, to choose something! The prepared environment of every Montessori primary school consists of these areas: the PRACTICAL LIFE, SENSORIAL, MATHEMATICS, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (the geography, zoology, botany, arts, sciences and music). All the areas, as everything in the Maria Montessori’s method, are interconnected, there is an elaborated system, order, logic and sequence in all of it.

And above all of this, the teacher has the most important task – TO PROTECT THE CHILD FROM BEING INTERRUPTED WHEN THE CHILD IS ABSORBED AND CONCENTRATES! Neither by praising the child, nor by obstruction by another child, nor by lack of time to perform the work nor by disruption by organizational matters.

To achieve all that, Montessori guides need not only to educate themselves professionally – the spiritual preparation of the teacher is the foundation for their work with the child. Teachers must continuously work on themselves and on their own approach to life, to oneself, to children and to people around.


Maria Montessori believed, as do we, that every human being, every baby is born good – that’s normal. But we, adults, put obstacles in the path of the natural development of the little human, unconsciously rather than consciously. Such children show in their behavior fear, anxiety, possessiveness, attachment, dependence, helplessness, sense of inferiority, lying, etc.

And Maria Montessori discovered by observation that if a child under the age of 6 is allowed to be active, to manipulate things, to repeat activities over and over again, to concentrate and no one disturbs them, not even by a praise, then after such repeated and uninterrupted work the child is refreshed, contended, full of strength and energy, happy and receptive to their needs and at the same time, empathic to the needs of others. The child comes back to their inner being, and thanks to concentration, the individual, separately developing components of a person’s personality are integrated and, around the age of six, united into a personality that is ready and will stay for the rest of the person’s life. This return to one own self, to the norm, this integration and harmonization was called by Maria Montessori NORMALIZATION. An interesting concept in the context of our country, is it not?

Therefore the guide protects as the crowning jewel the moment when the child has chosen a certain activity on their own volition that absorbs the child’s personality and the child repeats and repeats and repeats and concentrates.


The child needs to be active, to manipulate things, to move, to do things by themselves, this is how the child grows, discovers, develops and evolves. Children are responsible for their own education and growth. The rest of us support and help them in this with love, understanding and knowledge of their needs through observation. Each person, however, actively creates their own selves, not anyone else with words and explanations.

We help the children to do it themselves. To develop self-reliance and independence is the key.

If this resonates with you, that THE PROCESS IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE OUTCOME, that life is here and now and not when I am finally an adult, then Perlička is the right school for you and your children. The outcomes always come and are more surprising than you expect. It really depends on each individual child. Children measure up only to themselves, are not compared to anyone else, they don’t compete. Mistakes are a natural part of life, and when we are not afraid of them, they make us try again of our own volition, to continue to discover, progress and grow. There is no need for external manipulation, whether positive or negative, the innate internal motivation is a sufficient driving force. There is no need for labeling either, each human being and their uniqueness is respected.


When children leave the Perlička Primary for elementary at the age of six, they usually can read, write and count (each child according to their ability). But that’s not the main reason why they attend the Primary, nor is it the goal the guides are striving for. It is just the by-product of the process, the icing on the cake :-).

THE DEVELOPMENT OF GOOD QUALITIES AND CHARACTER has been naturally incorporated by Maria Montessori throughout the day in everything the children do in the primary, while adhering to the basic principles for the age of 3 to 6; qualities such as responsibility, consideration, self-discipline, patience, perseverance, cooperation, empathy, love of order, kindness, helping, friendship, respect, independence, self-denial, development of will and more.

This, together with supporting harmonization of personality – the normalization through concentration, is the main objective of the Montessori guide.


Children under the age of six have a very strong sensitive period for the development of social behavior. The primary classroom is a small community where big things happen. Everything that happens there is strongly influenced by this.

Maria Montessori says that Montessori materials cannot be just taken home, everything must happen among children in a community, in order to be effective. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS and friends are the main feature of any Montessori primary.

Just the fact that there is only one of each material in the classroom, makes me think of others when I, having finished working with it, return it with care and responsibility to its own place before I go and choose something else. If a friend happens to be working with something that I want, I wait patiently and choose something else for the time being, I do not take their work, I do not interfere. Please know that no child in the primary school has a problem with this consideration of others, patience, responsibility and love of order. Really, not even one :-). And of course, there are many activities where children can work together.


Whatever the children are doing, they are creating themselves. This is their work. By using this word, we show them respect and esteem.

To be able to achieve all of this what you have read up to now, sufficient time is needed, uninterrupted time period. By observation, Maria Montessori and other guides, us included, found out that the period needed is three hours.

Therefore each authentic Montessori primary has an UNITERRUPTED THREE-HOUR WORK CYCLE, so that “the magic of normalization – harmonization – concentration – repetition – focus without interruption – formation of personality” can develop.

It depends on each primary school when to begin this work cycle. In Perlička, our work cycle begins at 8:30 am, so we do not manage to go out to the yard in the morning. But worry not, we spend the entire afternoon outside in the yard. And we organize regular expeditions into our beautiful surroundings in the afternoons, our snacks packed with us.


Montessori GROUPS are a natural part of the life of the class – groups about language, sensorial work, music, zoology, botany, artists and art, composers, and scientists. Groups where children are shown how to do things and how to treat each other and communicate with respect are called GRACE AND COURTESY LESSONS. Or the amazing SILENCE GAME. Children love groups and they are actively engaged, the groups are always tailored to the particular children who take part. There is no mass teaching.

If we need to share something together, we have a community circle.

Arts and crafts, songs, rhymes and rhythms, and experiments, as well as different monthly performances and other events are also an integral part of the class.


Maria Montessori observed that children love movement. Movement, COORDINATED MOVEMENT, is a very much integrated part of a program of every Montessori classroom.

She noticed that children liked to walk on the curbs, searching for balance. Every Montessori classroom features a line, in the shape of ellipse, and children can walk on the line on their own at any time, often holding something in their hands (a bag, a flag, a ball on a spoon, water in a glass, a bell that doesn’t ring…).


FREEDOM goes hand in hand with RESPONSIBILITY; the more freedom I have, the more responsibility I have. If the responsibility is too much for me, someone else, usually an adult, can take it away and help me, but logically, they take the freedom with it. So it is the adult that decides.

And imagine, the more freedom, the more discipline. Really! Where self-discipline is lacking, freedom is lacking.

When I choose something freely, I get really engaged in it, I love to explore and discover, and this way, I learn and develop the most. This is verified every day, a hundred per cent!


Perlička really takes pride in seeing each family individually. Each family has different life style, different experience, different needs and desires, different pace, different priorities.

To be able to support the child in their development into a happy adult who is aware of their own needs as well as the needs of others, we work together with each family individually, getting to know each other and communicating constantly.

Parents are a very important part of the triangle: the child – the guide – the parent.

We offer you an initial interview about your child, individual consultations twice a year and whenever needed, we talk together every day when welcoming and saying goodbye to the children, you receive information and photos thanks to the Montessori app Transparent Classroom, we are always interested in your opinion, your questions, your feelings. We organize a variety of events for the Perlička families.


Maria Montessori went even further than just “devising another pedagogical system”. The interest of Maria Montessori was in a human being, in life as it is, life here and now for the future of man and humankind. Her main goal was to help to establish peace for all in the entire world through child’s purity, love and internal strength.

This is what Perlička has in its heart.

The child is both a hope and a promise for mankind.” Maria Montessori, Education and Peace